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This blend of Vitamin B12, citicoline, and caffeine supports brain health and alertness. Vitamin B12 is an essential component of DNA and nervous system processes. Citicoline, a kind of phospholipid crosses the blood-brain barrier, can increase the production of neurotransmitters in the nervous system, boosting cognitive function. Widely used for focus and attention, caffeine supports mental alertness by stimulating the central nervous system.*
Vitamin B12 plays an important role in supplying essential methyl groups for protein and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 is bound to the protein in food and hydrochloric acid in the stomach release B12 from protein during digestion. Once released, B12 combines with a substance called instrinsic factor. In humans, Vitamin B12 is required coenzyme for two important enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. (3-5)
Methionine synthase, uses the chemical form of the vitamin which has a methyl group attached to the cobalt and is called methylcobalamin. Methionine synthase catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine via the methionine cycle and regenerates tetrahydrofolate (THF) (3,4).
Unlike the other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin B12 is stored in the liver, primarily in the form of adenosylcobalamin. L-Methylmalonyl CoA mutase requires adenosylcobalamin for the conversion of L-methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl-CoA, an important intermediary in the extraction of energy from proteins and fats. Methylmalonyl CoA mutase, uses a form of vitamin B12 that has a 5’-adeoxyadenosyl moiety attached to the cobalt and is called 5’deoxyadenosylcobalamin, or coenzyme B12.
In nature, there are two other forms of vitamin B12: hydroxycobalamin and aquacobalamin, where hydroxyl and water groups, respectively, are attached to the cobalt. The synthetic form of vitamin B12 found in supplements and fortified foods is cyanocobalamin, which has cyanide attached to the cobalt. These three forms of vitamin B12 are enzymatically activated to the methyl- or deoxyadenosylcobalamins in all mammalian cells. (3, 5).
Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition, 2nd ed.
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements & World Health Organization. Dept. of Nutrition for Health and Development. , Geneva : World Health Organization., 2005
The metabolic processes of folic acid and Vitamin B12 deficiency.
Mahmood L, J Health Res Rev, 2014
Vitamins Their Role in the Human Body
G.F.M. Ball, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2004
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled three-arm study of sixty healthy adult women ages 40 - 60 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a daily oral dose of 250 mg citicoline, 500 mg citicoline, or placebo for 28 days. Participants were evaluated with the Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II), a measure sensitive to attentional function, during a baseline visit and 28 days after baseline. After 28 days of supplementation, individuals in the 250 mg group made fewer omission (p = 0.04) and commission (p = 0.03) errors compared to those in the placebo group. After 28 days of daily citicoline supplementation, participants who were administered either the 250 mg or the 500 mg citicoline doses showed significantly better ability to produce correct responses on the CPT-II. The study researcher concluded that citicoline may improve attentional performance and may ameliorate attentional deficits.
A separate double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm design study investigated the effectiveness of two doses of citicoline (250 and 500 mg/day) or placebo on attention and motor function after 4 weeks of supplementation. 75 healthy adolescent males were given neuropsychological measures assessing motor performance and attention at the beginning and end of the study period to investigate changes in functioning. The study found that citicoline supplementation was associated with improved motor function and attentional abilities in healthy adolescent males in doses of 250-500mg.
Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women
McGlade E, Locatelli A, Hardy J, Kamiya T, Morita M, Morishita K, Sugimura Y, Yurgelun D, Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2012
The Effect of Citicoline Supplementation on Motor Speed and Attention in Adolescent Males
McGlade E, Agoston A, Jennifer DiMuzio, Miho Kizaki, Eri Nakazaki, Toshikazu Kamiya, and Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, Journal of Attention Disorders , 2015
Numerous studies have shown that caffeine is known to exert positive effects on cognitive performance such as reaction time, alertness, and sustained attention. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies found that moderate levels of caffeine enhanced sustained attention and alertness, decreased feelings of mental fatigue, reduced reaction time, improved performance on attention tasks and increased overall mood ratings.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood.
Dodd FL, Kennedy DO, Riby LM, Psychopharmacology, 2015
Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.
Wilhelmus MM, Hay JL, Zuiker R, Okkerse P, Perdrieu C et al., Journal of Pscyhopharmacology, 2017
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increased fat oxidation leading to a reduction in body fat mass (ID 735, 1484), increased energy expenditure leading to a reduction in body weight (ID 1487), increased alertness (ID 736, 1101, 1187, 1485, 1491, 2063, 2103) and increased attention (ID 736, 1485, 1491, 2375) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA), EFSA Journal, 2011
Nutritional ergogenic acids are “substances that can enhance performance and are
either nutrients, metabolic by-products of nutrients, food (plant) extracts, or substances commonly found in foods (e.g. caffeine) that are provided in amounts more
concentrated than commonly found in the natural food supply” (2). Furthermore, as a
central nervous system stimulant, caffeine may allow a continuation of performance at a
higher level by stimulating the brain into a lower level of fatigue (2).
It is widely shown that caffeine can help with endurance-type performance activities. In its position on caffeine and performance, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) concludes that caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg body weight). Additionally, caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation. Caffeine supplementation has also been shown to be beneficial for high-intensity exercise, sustained maximal endurance exercise and time-trial performance (3).
In 2011, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) determined that relationships have been established between caffeine consumption and increased endurance performance and increased endurance capacity at intake levels of at least 3 mg/kg body weight administered at least an hour prior to exercise. The Panel also concluded that caffeine ingestion of at least 4 mg/kg body weight administered at least one our prior to exercise reduced perceived exertion/effort during exercise (4).
Health Canada’s Natural Health Product monograph for caffeine permits the following performance claims at dosages of 100-200 mg (1):
• Helps (temporarily) to relieve fatigue, to promote endurance, and to enhance motor performance
Researchers studying the effect of coffee, which contained approximately 150-200 mg caffeine, on treadmill running time found that individuals taking the caffeinated product had a 4.2 second faster run time, as compared to decaffeinated coffee. Additionally, all subjected achieved significantly faster run speeds following ingestion of caffeinated coffee. Finally, during the sustained high-intensity effort, eight of ten subjects had increased VO2 values (5).
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study assessing the performance benefits of caffeine on experienced basketball players, researchers found that 3mg/kg body weight of caffeine increased mean jump height, increased the number of body impacts without modifying mean or peak heart rate and also increased the performance index during the game (6).
Health Canada Monograph, Health Canada Monograph, 2007
Benardot, D (Ed), Advanced Sports Nutrition, 2nd edition, 2012
International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance.
Goldstein E, Ziegnefuss T, Kalman D, Kreider R et al. , JISSN, 2010
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and increase in physical performance during short-term high-intensity exercise, increase in endurance performance, increase in endurance capacity and reduction in the rated perceived exertion/effort during exercise pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) NO 1924/2006.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA), EFSA Journal, 2011
Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running.
Wiles JD, Bird SR, Hopkins J, Riley M., Br J Sp Med, 1992
Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players.
Puente C, Abian-Vicen J, Salinero J, Lara B et al., Nutrients, 2017